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                          tW88D                 Text Editor

NANO(1)                     General Commands Manual                    NANO(1)

       nano - Nano's ANOther editor, an enhanced free Pico clone

       nano [options] [[+line[,column]] file]...

       nano  is  a small, free and friendly editor which aims to replace Pico,
       the default editor included in the non-free Pine package.   On  top  of
       copying  Pico's  look  and  feel, nano also implements some missing (or
       disabled by default) features in Pico, such as "search and replace" and
       "go to line and column number".

       Entering  text  and  moving around in a file is straightforward: typing
       the letters and using the normal cursor movement  keys.   Commands  are
       entered by using the Control (^) and the Alt or Meta (M-) keys.  Typing
       ^K deletes the current line and puts it in the cutbuffer.   Consecutive
       ^Ks  will  put all deleted lines together in the cutbuffer.  Any cursor
       movement or executing any other command will cause the next ^K to over-
       write  the cutbuffer.  A ^U will paste the current contents of the cut-
       buffer at the current cursor position.

       When a more precise piece of text needs to be cut or  copied,  one  can
       mark  its  start  with  ^6, move the cursor to its end (the marked text
       will be highlighted), and then use ^K to cut it, or M-6 to copy  it  to
       the cutbuffer.  One can also save the marked text to a file with ^O, or
       spell check it with ^T.

       Since nano-2.7.0, text can also be selected by holding Shift and moving
       the  cursor  with  the  arrow  keys.  Holding down the Alt key too will
       increase the stride.

       The two lines at the bottom of the screen show the most important  com-
       mands;  the  built-in  help  (^G)  lists  all  the available ones.  The
       default key bindings can  be  changed  via  the  .nanorc  file  --  see

              Places  the cursor on line number line and at column number col-
              umn (at least one  of  which  must  be  specified)  on  startup,
              instead of the default line 1, column 1.

       -A, --smarthome
              Make the Home key smarter.  When Home is pressed anywhere but at
              the very beginning of non-whitespace characters on a  line,  the
              cursor  will  jump  to  that beginning (either forwards or back-
              wards).  If the cursor is already at that position, it will jump
              to the true beginning of the line.

       -B, --backup
              When  saving  a  file, back up the previous version of it, using
              the current filename suffixed with a tilde (~).

       -C directory, --backupdir=directory
              Make and keep not just one backup file,  but  make  and  keep  a
              uniquely numbered one every time a file is saved -- when backups
              are enabled.  The uniquely numbered  files  are  stored  in  the
              specified directory.

       -D, --boldtext
              Use bold text instead of reverse video text.

       -E, --tabstospaces
              Convert typed tabs to spaces.

       -F, --multibuffer
              Enable  multiple file buffers (if support for them has been com-
              piled in).

       -G, --locking
              Enable vim-style file locking when editing files.

       -H, --historylog
              Log search and replace  strings  to  ~/.nano/search_history,  so
              they can be retrieved in later sessions.

       -I, --ignorercfiles
              Don't look at the system's nanorc nor at ~/.nanorc.

       -K, --rebindkeypad
              Interpret  the  numeric  keypad keys so that they all work prop-
              erly.  You should only need to use this option if they don't, as
              mouse support won't work properly with this option enabled.

       -L, --nonewlines
              Don't add newlines to the ends of files.

       -N, --noconvert
              Disable automatic conversion of files from DOS/Mac format.

       -O, --morespace
              Use the blank line below the titlebar as extra editing space.

       -P, --positionlog
              For the 200 most recent files, log the last position of the cur-
              sor, and place it at that position again upon reopening  such  a
              file.  (The old form of this option, --poslog, is deprecated.)

       -Q "characters", --quotestr="characters"
              Set   the   quoting  string  for  justifying.   The  default  is
              "^([ \t]*[#:>\|}])+" if extended regular expression  support  is
              available, or "> " otherwise.  Note that \t stands for a Tab.

       -R, --restricted
              Restricted  mode:  don't read or write to any file not specified
              on the command line; don't read any  nanorc  files  nor  history
              files;  don't allow suspending nor spell checking; don't allow a
              file to be appended to, prepended to, or saved under a different
              name  if  it  already has one; and don't use backup files.  This
              restricted mode is also accessible by  invoking  nano  with  any
              name beginning with 'r' (e.g. "rnano").

       -S, --smooth
              Enable smooth scrolling.  Text will scroll line-by-line, instead
              of the usual chunk-by-chunk behavior.

       -T number, --tabsize=number
              Set the size (width) of a tab to number columns.  The  value  of
              number must be greater than 0.  The default value is 8.

       -U, --quickblank
              Do  quick statusbar blanking.  Statusbar messages will disappear
              after 1 keystroke instead of 25.  Note that -c overrides this.

       -V, --version
              Show the current version number and exit.

       -W, --wordbounds
              Detect word boundaries differently by treating punctuation char-
              acters as part of a word.

       -X "characters", --wordchars="characters"
              Specify  which other characters (besides the normal alphanumeric
              ones) should be considered as part of a  word.   This  overrides
              option -W (--wordbounds).

       -Y name, --syntax=name
              Specify  the  name  of the syntax highlighting to use from among
              the ones defined in the nanorc files.

       -c, --constantshow
              Constantly show the cursor position.  Note that  this  overrides

       -d, --rebinddelete
              Interpret  the Delete key differently so that both Backspace and
              Delete work properly.  You should only need to use  this  option
              if Backspace acts like Delete on your system.

       -g, --showcursor
              Make  the  cursor visible in the file browser, putting it on the
              highlighted item.  Useful for braille users.

       -h, --help
              Show a summary of the available command-line options and exit.

       -i, --autoindent
              Indent new lines to the  previous  line's  indentation.   Useful
              when editing source code.

       -k, --cut
              Make  the  'Cut Text' command (normally ^K) cut from the current
              cursor position to the end of the line, instead of  cutting  the
              entire line.

       -l, --linenumbers
              Display line numbers to the left of the text area.

       -m, --mouse
              Enable  mouse  support,  if  available  for  your  system.  When
              enabled, mouse clicks can be used to place the cursor,  set  the
              mark  (with  a  double click), and execute shortcuts.  The mouse
              will work in the X Window System, and on the console when gpm is
              running.  Text can still be selected through dragging by holding
              down the Shift key.

       -n, --noread
              Treat any name given on the command line as a  new  file.   This
              allows  nano to write to named pipes: it will start with a blank
              buffer, and will write to the  pipe  when  the  user  saves  the
              "file".   This  way nano can be used as an editor in combination
              with for instance gpg without having to write sensitive data  to
              disk first.

       -o directory, --operatingdir=directory
              Set  the  operating directory.  This makes nano set up something
              similar to a chroot.

       -p, --preserve
              Preserve the XON and XOFF sequences (^Q and ^S) so they will  be
              caught by the terminal.

       -q, --quiet
              Do  not  report  errors  in  the nanorc files nor ask them to be
              acknowledged by pressing Enter at startup.

       -r number, --fill=number
              Hard-wrap lines at column number.  If this value is 0  or  less,
              wrapping  will occur at the width of the screen less number col-
              umns, allowing the wrap point to vary along with  the  width  of
              the  screen  if the screen is resized.  The default value is -8.
              This option conflicts with  -w  --  the  last  one  given  takes

       -s program, --speller=program
              Use this alternative spell checker command.

       -t, --tempfile
              Save a changed buffer without prompting (when exiting with ^X).

       -u, --unix
              Save  a  file  by default in Unix format.  This overrides nano's
              default behavior of saving a file in the  format  that  it  had.
              (This option has no effect when you also use --noconvert.)

       -v, --view
              Just view the file and disallow editing: read-only mode.

       -w, --nowrap
              Disable  the hard-wrapping of long lines.  This option conflicts
              with -r -- the last one given takes effect.

       -x, --nohelp
              Don't show the two help lines at the bottom of the screen.

       -z, --suspend
              Enable the suspend ability.

       -$, --softwrap
              Enable 'soft wrapping'.  This will make nano attempt to  display
              the  entire  contents of any line, even if it is longer than the
              screen width, by  continuing  it  over  multiple  screen  lines.
              Since  '$'  normally refers to a variable in the Unix shell, you
              should specify this option last when using other  options  (e.g.
              'nano -wS$') or pass it separately (e.g. 'nano -wS -$').

       -a, -b, -e, -f, -j
              Ignored, for compatibility with Pico.

       Several of the above options can be switched on and off also while nano
       is running.  For example, M-L toggles the hard-wrapping of long  lines,
       M-$  toggles  soft-wrapping,  M-# toggles line numbers, M-M toggles the
       mouse, M-I auto-indentation, and M-X the help lines.  See at the end of
       the ^G help text for a complete list.

       nano  will  read  initialization files in the following order: the sys-
       tem's nanorc (if it exists), and  then  the  user's  ~/.nanorc  (if  it
       exists).   Please  see  nanorc(5)  for more information on the possible
       contents of those files.

       If no alternative spell checker command is  specified  on  the  command
       line nor in one of the nanorc files, nano will check the SPELL environ-
       ment variable for one.

       In some cases nano will try to dump the buffer into an emergency  file.
       This  will  happen  mainly if nano receives a SIGHUP or SIGTERM or runs
       out of memory.  It will write the buffer into a file named nano.save if
       the  buffer didn't have a name already, or will add a ".save" suffix to
       the current filename.  If an emergency  file  with  that  name  already
       exists  in  the  current  directory,  it will add ".save" plus a number
       (e.g. ".save.1") to the current filename in order to  make  it  unique.
       In  multibuffer  mode,  nano  will  write all the open buffers to their
       respective emergency files.

       Justifications (^J) and reindentations (M-{ and M-}) are not  yet  cov-
       ered  by the general undo system.  So after a justification that is not
       immediately undone, or after any reindentation, earlier edits cannot be
       undone any more.  The workaround is, of course, to exit without saving.

       Please report any other bugs that you encounter via:



       /usr/share/doc/nano/ (or equivalent on your system)

       Chris  Allegretta  and  others  (see  the  files AUTHORS and THANKS for
       details).  This manual page was originally written by Jordi Mallach for
       the Debian system (but may be used by others).

January 2017                     version 2.7.4                         NANO(1)